|Information on Immigration, Investment, Education and Residence|
|How does the United States regulate vaccine safety?
And how to compensate?
In the mid-1970s, the United States witnessed a significant increase in legal cases of injury (presumably, possibly) caused by the vaccination of pertussis (diphtheria, pertussis and tetanus), making vaccine safety a public focus.
Despite the lack of scientific evidence that the plaintiff or his guardian was injured by vaccination, American courts still awarded compensation.
These court decisions directly increased the risk of vaccine manufacturers, and the price of vaccines naturally soareD.Several vaccine manufacturers could not stand it and simply closed their doors.
As a result, vaccines have become scarce, and public health officials fear that the epidemic will return.
Therefore, in order to reduce the risks of vaccine manufacturers and public health concerns, the National Childhood Vaccine Injury Act (NCVIA) was passed by Congress in 1986, which has a significant and far-reaching impact on vaccine regulation in the United States in many aspects.
The passage of the Act is a milestone for vaccine safety in the United States.
The results are as follows:
1. Establish the National Vaccine Project Office (NVPO) to coordinate the activities of all vaccination-related departments under the Department of Health and Human Services (DHHS), including CDC, FDA and the Health Resources and Services Authority (HRSA).
2. The NCVIA Act requires all health agencies that administer vaccines to provide "Vaccine Information Statement" (VIS) to themselves or their guardians before each vaccination.
These vaccines include DPT, polio, measles, mumps, rubella, hepatitis B, Haemophilus influenzae type B and varicellA.Each VIS includes a brief description of each disease to be prevented and the risks and benefits of vaccines.
CDC developed VIS and distributed it to state and local health departments, hospitals and other health institutions.
3. According to NCVIA Act, the National Vaccine Injury Compensation Program (NVICP) came into being, which is specially used to compensate for the injury caused by vaccination.
This compensation is based on the principle of "no fault".
The so-called no-fault means that the claimant does not need to prove that his injury was caused by the fault of a medical institution or vaccine manufacturer.
NVICP covers all routinely recommended vaccines for children. compensation schemes are based on the Vaccine Injury Table, which summarizes adverse reactions caused by vaccines.
The United States has established a Vaccine Relief Fund based on this liSt.The fund comes from the tax collected for vaccines included in the Vaccine Injury Statement.
The law provides for a tax of $0.
75 for each vaccination dose sold on the list as a source of relief funds.
Individuals and their families can be compensated in three ways:
the first is to show that their injuries (listed in the above-mentioned list of vaccine injuries) occur after an appropriate interval of time for vaccination.
The other two ways include proving adverse reactions and injuries caused by vaccines or showing that vaccines aggravate pre-vaccination health conditions.
4. NCVIA has established a committee from the American Academy of Medical Sciences (IOM) to review literature on vaccine side effects.
The Committee concluded that human knowledge of vaccine-related risks is still limited.
|ABOUT texas local customs, tourist attractions|
|The southern industrial city of Dallas (Dallas) is located in North Texas, across the Trinity River, 48 km west of Fort Worth, is the second largest city in the state after Houston.
The area of 862.5 square kilometers, large urban area 2331 square kilometers.
Dallas stands for the Indian fur trade.
In 1841, John Neri Brian the first house built in the river.
A city in 1856. Due to the black cotton soil grassland areas, along with the 19 century 70 railway have access, become one of the main cotton market.
1907 composition of the Dallas cotton exchange, cotton 20's national 40% 20 century from the surrounding area.
9 1930 30, Joyner found the East Texas oilfield, make the city a petroleum industry management center.
city East, west oil of crude oil produced by the foreign exchange market by oil pipeline.
Oil refining, petrochemical, petroleum machinery industry developed, with offices in the city, the oil companies up to 600. During the Second World War and after the war, munitions, aircraft manufacturing, electronics industry, population growth, rapid development of the city.
Has since become the southwestern United States banking and financial center, many insurance companies located in the region, there are eleventh Federal Reserve banks and other banks about 100 large urban areas.
Dallas industry categories, electronics, electrical appliances, aircraft, missiles and other emerging industries, and the textile, clothing, food, agricultural machinery and other traditional industries have considerable scale.
Dallas is a transport hub in central and western regions, railway and highway across the city, between urban and rural highway intertexture.
Dallas - Woenbao airport for 1973 years after the completion of the opening to the outside world, Ralph airport, the former is one of the busiest airports in the world. Trinity River divides the city into two parts, North Business District, the south is a residential area.
Distribution of plants mainly along the rivers.
The city is famous for its cultural activities, often continue to perform opera, ballet, concert and symphony.
The famous Dallas Theater center was designed by the famous architect Frank Lloyd Wright, known as the drama of the church.
The city is one of the three large conference center.
Once a year the Texas State Fair is also held here.
The site is located in the beautiful park, the park also building and cotton to commemorate the Texas independence in 100th anniversary and in 1936 built the Museum, botanical garden, Texas History Museum, aquarium, Museum of art.
In November 22, 1963, the thirty-fifth president of the United States John Kennedy to Dallas in preparation for the activities for re.
election was assassinated.
The assassination site of a memorial plaza, the square stands the monument to President Kennedy.
Texas Transportation Museum is located in texas city of Sanantonio, is entirely by volunteers set up and manage the funds, but also tourists visit costs, no government funding.
The Museum is to protect texas's transportation history and handicrafts and established in 1964, covers an area of 40 acres, has a collection of various vehicles and train model.
The Museum collection of cars, fire engines, railway carriage, model, tractor and engine, the car has 1924 1928Durant Star M2 coupe Ford truck, 1929Ford Model, A Truck, 1936 1938, chevrolet cars, chevrolet cars, Lincoln 1963;
1898 1903, Vitoria coach Beck Stuart van carriage.
The model in the Museum is divided into different periods and without style, in order to reduce the model of texas railway, so that visitors can have a better understanding of the history of railway.
Texas Transportation Museum opened three days a week, Friday morning at 9:00 to 3:00 afternoon, 5:00 in the morning to 10:00 weekend afternoon, tourists can choose any of them a day visit.
Texas Transportation Museum
Reason: Texas, the most important transportation Museum
Spots continents: North America
Scenic region / country: the United States
Attractions of the province, Texas: [Texas State]
city Attractions: Sanantonio [San Antonio]