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4163183321 4163189835 4163189838 4163189832 4163189837 4163189836 4163189831 4163189833 4163189830 4163189834 4163188257 4163188256 4163188251 4163188253 4163188250 4163188254 4163188259 4163188285 4163188288 4163188282 4315416318 4318416318 4312416318 4317416318 4316416318 4311416318 4313416318 4310416318 4314416318 4319416318 4163185582 4163185587 4163184364 4163184369 4163185772 4163184665 4163184668 4163184662 4163184667 4163184666 4163184661 4163184663 4163184660 4163184664 4163184669 4163184615 4163184618 4163184612 4163184617 4163184616 7276416318 7290416318 7294416318 7299416318 7231416318 7208416318 7248416318 7207416318 7206416318 7259416318 4163182353 4163182350 4163182354 4163182359 4163182385 4163182388 4163182382 4163182387 4163182386 4163182381 4163189867 4163182690 4163182694 4163182699 4163182155 4163182158 4163182152 4163182157 4163182156 4163182151 4163185109 4163185171 4163185148 4163185142 4163185147 4163185146 4163185141 4163185143 4163185140 4163185144 4163185149 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6917416318 6916416318 6911416318 6913416318 6910416318 6914416318 6919416318 6765416318 9219416318 9235416318 9238416318 9232416318 9237416318 9236416318 9231416318 9233416318 9230416318 9234416318 9239416318 9755416318 9758416318 9752416318 9757416318 9756416318 9751416318 9753416318 9750416318 9278416318 4163189879 4163189865 4163189868 4163189862 4163182676 4163189866 4163189861 4163189863 4163189860 4163189864 4163189869 4163189815 4163189818 4163189812 4163189817 4163189816 4163189811 4163189813 4163189810 4163189814 4163183326 4163189819 4163183323 4163183375 4163183324 4163183329 4163183320 4163183304 4163183372 4163183377 4163183393 4163183345 4163183373 4163183370 4163183374 4163183379 4163183365 4163183368 4163183362 4163183367 4163182153 4163182150 4163182154 4163182159 4163182185 4163182188 4163182182 4163182187 4163182186 4163182181 4163182183 4163182180 4163182184 4163182189 4163182125 4163182128 4163182122 4163182127 4163182126 4163182121 2477416318 2493416318 2445416318 2473416318 2470416318 2474416318 2479416318 2465416318 2468416318 2462416318 2467416318 2466416318 2461416318 2463416318 2460416318 2464416318 2469416318 2415416318 2418416318 2412416318 3853416318 3850416318 3854416318 3859416318 3885416318 3888416318 3882416318 3887416318 3886416318 3881416318 3883416318 3880416318 3884416318 3889416318 3825416318 3828416318 3822416318 3827416318 3826416318 3821416318 4163182823 4163182875 4163182824 4163182829 4163182820 4163182804 4163182872 4163182877 4163182893 4163182845 4163185212 4163185217 4163185216 4163185211 4163185213 4163185210 4163185214 4163185219 4163185235 4163185238 4163185232 4163185237 4163185236 4163185231 4163185233 4163185230 4163185234 4163185239 4163185755 4163185758 6294416318 7268416318 7157416318 8555416318 8558416318 8552416318 8557416318 8556416318 8551416318 8553416318 8550416318 8554416318 8559416318 8585416318 8588416318 8582416318 8587416318 8586416318 8581416318 8583416318 5848416318 5807416318 5806416318 5859416318 5872416318 5800416318 5878416318 5809416318 5871416318 5848416318 4163181976 4163181990 4163181994 4163182634 4163183555 4163183558 4163183552 4163183557 4163183556 4163183551 4163182876 4163182890 4163182894 4163182899 4163182255 4163182258 4163182252 4163182257 4163182256 4163182251 4163182253 4163182250 4163182254 4163182259 4163182285 4163182288 4163182282 4163182287 4163182286 4163182281 5953416318 5950416318 5954416318 5959416318 5985416318 5988416318 5982416318 5987416318 5986416318 5981416318 5983416318 5980416318 5984416318 5989416318 5925416318 5928416318 5922416318 5927416318 5926416318 5921416318 8946416318 8941416318 8943416318 8940416318 8944416318 8949416318 8995416318 8998416318 8992416318 8997416318 4163188009 4163188785 4163188788 4163188782 4163188787 4163188786 4163188781 4163188783 4163188780 4163188784 4163180777 4163180793 4163180745 4163180773 4163180770 4163180774 4163180779 4163182635 4163182638 4163182632 4163182637 4163182636 4163182631 4163182633 4163182630 4163181999 4163182639 4163180455 4163180458 4163180452 3106416318 3159416318 3172416318 3100416318 3178416318 3109416318 3171416318 3148416318 3142416318 3147416318 9629416318 9620416318 9604416318 9672416318 9677416318 9693416318 9645416318 9673416318 9670416318 9674416318 9679416318 9665416318 9668416318 9662416318 9667416318 9666416318 9661416318 9663416318 9660416318 9664416318 7689416318 7625416318 7628416318 7622416318 7627416318 7626416318 7621416318 7623416318 7675416318 7624416318 4163180607 4163180606 4163180659 4163180672 4163180600 4163180678 4163180609 4163180671 4163180648 4163180642 4163180647 4163180646 4163180641 4163180643 4163180640 4163180644 4163180649 4163180695 4163180698 4163180692 7116416318 7111416318 7113416318 7110416318 7114416318 7119416318 7135416318 7138416318 7132416318 7137416318 8996416318 8991416318 8976416318 8990416318 8994416318 8999416318 7273416318 7270416318 7274416318 7279416318 8580416318 8584416318 8589416318 8525416318 8528416318 8522416318 8527416318 8526416318 8521416318 8523416318 6249416318 5495416318 8798416318 4292416318 7697416318 3096416318 6291416318 5476416318 7890416318 3584416318 4163188096 4163188091 4163188076 4163188090 4163188094 4163188099 4163188715 4163188718 4163188712 4163188717 4163188716 4163188711 4163188713 4163188710 4163188714 4163188719 4163188485 4163188488 4163188482 4163188487 8726416318 8721416318 8723416318 8720416318 8724416318 8729416318 8721416318 8008416318 8048416318 8007416318 8560416318 8564416318 8569416318 8515416318 8518416318 8512416318 8517416318 8516416318 8511416318 8314416318 4163187723 4163187775 4163187724 4163187729 4163187720 4163187704 4163187772 4163188513 4163188510 4163188514 3956416318 3951416318 3953416318 2978416318 3954416318 3959416318 3985416318 3988416318 3982416318 3987416318 3986416318 3981416318 3983416318 3980416318 3984416318 3989416318 3925416318 3928416318 3922416318 3927416318 4163184726 4163184721 4163184723 4163184775 4163184724 4163184729 4163184720 4163184704 4163184772 4163184777 2672416318 2600416318 2678416318 2609416318 2671416318 2648416318 2642416318 2647416318 2646416318 2641416318 2643416318 2640416318 2644416318 2649416318 2695416318 2698416318 2692416318 2697416318 2696416318 2691416318 2767416318 2766416318 2761416318 2763416318 2760416318 2764416318 2769416318 2931416318 2908416318 2948416318 2907416318 2906416318 2959416318 2972416318 2900416318 3950416318 2909416318 2971416318 2948416318 2942416318 4163188519 4163188535 4163188538 4163188532 4163188537 4163188536 4163188531 4163188533 4163188530 4163188534 4163188539 4163188531 4163188508 4163188548 4163188507 4163188506 4163188559 4163188572 4163188500 4163188578 4163181258 4163181252 4163181257 4163181256 4163181251 4163181253 4163181250 4163181254 4163181259 4163181285 9004416318 9072416318 9077416318 9093416318 9045416318 9073416318 9070416318 9074416318 9079416318 9065416318 4163181228 4163181222 4163181227 4163181226 4163181221 4163181223 4163181275 4163181224 4163181229 4163181220 4163181204 4163181272 4163181277 4163181293 4163181245 4163181273 4163181270 4163181274 4163181279 4163181265 4163185063 4163185060 4163185064 4163185069 4163185595 4163185598 4163185592 4163185597 4163185596 4163185591 8319416318 8335416318 8338416318 8332416318 8337416318 8336416318 8331416318 8333416318 8330416318 8334416318 8006416318 8059416318 8072416318 5526416318 8078416318 8009416318 8785416318 8788416318 8782416318 8787416318 4163185106 4163185159 4163185172 4163185100 4163185178 4163185109 4163185171 4163185148 4163185142 4163185147 8575416318 8524416318 8529416318 8520416318 8504416318 8572416318 8577416318 8593416318 8545416318 8573416318 2853416318 2850416318 2854416318 2859416318 2885416318 2888416318 2882416318 2887416318 2886416318 2881416318 4163181288 4163181282 4163181287 4163181286 4163181281 4163181283 4163181280 4163181284 4163181289 4163181225 4163185593 4163185590 4163185594 4163185599 4163185725 4163185728 4163185722 4163185727 4163185726 4163185721 4163185723 4163185720 4163185724 4163185729 4163185721 4163185008 4163185048 4163185007 4163185006 4163185059 4163185947 4163185946 4163185941 4163185943 4163185940 4163185944 4163185949 4163185995 4163185998 4163185992 4163181651 4163181653 4163181650 4163181654 4163181659 4163181685 4163181688 4163188667 4163186667 4163186666 2883416318 2880416318 2884416318 2889416318 2825416318 2828416318 2822416318 2827416318 2826416318 2821416318 5525416318 5528416318 5522416318 5527416318 8000416318 5521416318 5523416318 5575416318 5524416318 5529416318 4513416318 4510416318 4514416318 4519416318 4535416318 4538416318 4532416318 4537416318 4536416318 4531416318 4533416318 4530416318 4534416318 4539416318 4531416318 4508416318 4548416318 4507416318 4506416318 4559416318 4163186234 4163186239 4163186755 4163186758 4163186752 4163186757 4163186756 4163186751 4163186753 4163186750 4163186278 4163186759 4163186271 4163186248 4163186242 4163186247 4163186246 4163186241 4163186243 4163186240 4163181159 4163181185 4163181188 4163181182 4163181187 4163181186 4163181181 4163181183 4163181180 4163181184 3294416318 3299416318 3231416318 3208416318 7985416318 3207416318 3206416318 3259416318 3272416318 3200416318 4163188727 4163188726 4163188721 4163188723 4163188775 4163188724 4163188729 4163188720 4163188704 4163188772 4631416318 4633416318 4630416318 4634416318 4639416318 4631416318 4608416318 4648416318 4607416318 4606416318 2563416318 2560416318 2564416318 2569416318 2515416318 2518416318 2512416318 2517416318 2516416318 2511416318 4163185997 4163185996 4163185991 4163185976 4163185990 4163185994 4163185999 4163181299 4163181231 4163181208 9179416318 9165416318 9168416318 9162416318 9167416318 9166416318 9161416318 9163416318 9160416318 9164416318 7953416318 7950416318 7954416318 7959416318 3248416318 7988416318 7982416318 7987416318 7986416318 7981416318 4163185559 4163185585 4163184093 4163184045 4163184073 4163184070 4163184074 4163184079 4163184065 4163184068 7443416318 7440416318 7444416318 7449416318 7495416318 7498416318 7492416318 7497416318 7496416318 7491416318 4163185822 4163185827 4163185826 4163185821 4163185586 4163185581 4163185583 4163185580 4163185584 4163185589 4163184611 4163184613 4163184610 4163184614 4163184619 4163184635 4163184638 4163184632 4163184637 4163184636 6948416318 6942416318 6947416318 6946416318 6941416318 6943416318 6940416318 6944416318 6949416318 6995416318 5515416318 5518416318 5512416318 5517416318 5516416318 5511416318 4599416318 4725416318 4728416318 5550416318 4163186661 4163186663 4163186660 4163186664 4163180878 4163186615 4163186618 4163186612 4163186617 4163186616 4163181619 4163181635 4163181638 4163181632 4163181637 4163181636 4163181631 4163181633 4163181630 4163181634 4163181639 4163181631 4163181608 4163181648 4163181607 4163181606 4163181659 4163181672 4163181600 4163181678 4163186833 4163186830 4163186834 4163186839 4163186831 4163186808 4163186848 4163186807 4163186806 4163186859 4163186872 4163186800 4163186878 4163186809 4163186871 4163186848 4163186842 4163186847 4163186846 4163186841 1838416318 4232416318 4237416318 4236416318 5581416318 4233416318 4230416318 4234416318 4239416318 4231416318 1808416318 4248416318 4207416318 4206416318 4259416318 4272416318 4200416318 4278416318 4209416318 4271416318 6513416318 6510416318 6514416318 6519416318 6535416318 7242416318 6532416318 6537416318 6536416318 6531416318 4163181319 4163181335 4163181338 4163181332 4163181337 4163181336 4163181331 4163181333 4163181330 4163181334 3644416318 3649416318 3695416318 3698416318 3692416318 3697416318 3696416318 3691416318 3676416318 3690416318 4163182733 4163182730 4163182734 4163182739 4163182731 4163182708 4163182748 4163182707 4163182706 4163182759 5923416318 5975416318 5924416318 5929416318 5920416318 5904416318 5972416318 5977416318 5993416318 5945416318 5973416318 5970416318 5974416318 5979416318 5965416318 5968416318 5962416318 5967416318 5966416318 5961416318 5963416318 5960416318 5964416318 5969416318 5915416318 5918416318 5912416318 5917416318 5916416318 5911416318 4163187219 4163187235 4163187238 4163187232 4163187237 4163187236 4163187231 4163187233 4163187230 4163187234 9249416318 9295416318 9298416318 9292416318 9297416318 9296416318 9291416318 9276416318 9290416318 9294416318 4163186611 4163186613 4163186610 4163186614 4163186619 4163186635 4163186638 4163186632 4163186637 4163186636 4163180806 4163180859 4163180872 4163180800 4163186669 4163180809 4163180871 4163180848 4163180842 4163180847 5232416318 3437416318 3436416318 3431416318 3433416318 3430416318 3434416318 3439416318 5755416318 5758416318 1742416318 3647416318 3646416318 3641416318 3643416318 3640416318 4366416318 4361416318 4363416318 4360416318 4163185483 4163185075 4163185484 4163185489 4163184171 4163185004 4163185072 4163185077 4163185093 4163185045 4163185073 4163185070 4163185074 4163185079 4163185065 4163185068 4163185062 4163185067 4163185066 4163185061 5822416318 5827416318 5826416318 5821416318 5586416318 4231416318 5583416318 5580416318 5584416318 5589416318 4611416318 4613416318 4610416318 4614416318 4619416318 4635416318 4638416318 4632416318 4637416318 4636416318 4163184483 4163184480 4163184484 4163184489 4163184425 4163184428 4163184422 4163184427 4163184426 4163184421 4826416318 4821416318 4823416318 4875416318 4824416318 4829416318 4820416318 4804416318 4872416318 4877416318 4893416318 4845416318 4873416318 4870416318 4874416318 4879416318 4865416318 4868416318 4862416318 4867416318 4866416318 2661416318 9063416318 4860416318 7464416318 2369416318 4815416318 8518416318 4812416318 4817416318 6631416318 6633416318 6630416318 6634416318 6639416318 6631416318 6608416318 6648416318 6607416318 6606416318 6659416318 6672416318 6600416318 6678416318 6609416318 6671416318 6648416318 6642416318 6647416318 6646416318 4163188777 4163188793 4163188745 4163188773 4163188770 4163188774 4163188779 4163185135 4163185138 4163185132
ontario local customs, tourist attractions

Ontario north to Hudson Bay, Quebec to the East, West meets Manitoba, South is with the United States of Minnesota, Michigan, Ohio, Pennsylvania and New York States is bounded. Ontario border with the United States basically is a river or lake, from the St. Lawrence River in the west lake forest until the East Cornwall. Which include the Great Lakes in the Lake Superior, Lake Huron, Lake Erie and Lake Ontario (Ontario since then named, Ontario "in the Iroquois language is beautiful lake of mean). There are about two and a total of more than one hundred thousand kilometers of river in Ontario province.
Largest city and provincial capital of Toronto, is the Ontario lake on the West Bank of the so-called "golden horseshoe" of the main members of the urban belt. The Canadian capital of Ottawa province in the easternmost of the Ottawa river. The main river is the Ontario border between Ottawa and Quebec two provinces.

A large number of immigrants from all over the world, especially to the immigrants in Toronto, are rapidly making the province's cultural diversity. About 5% of Ontario's population speaks French.

The province's industry mainly for manufacturing, Southeast of the city with the national industrial center. The main products are automotive, steel, food, electrical, mechanical, chemical and paper. Science and technology industry is also very developed, especially in the area near Markham, Waterloo and Ottawa city.

Reason: Toronto the most photogenic Market Point Pelee National Park is located in southwestern Ontario, founded in 1918, covers an area of 15 square kilometers, is a major Canadian must see attractions. It is Canada's most southern tip, is also the most special park, the park has a large area of wetlands and swamps, is to watch the birds and butterflies in the ideal place. Park has the original Avenue, the long beach, the high ecological reeds and prolonged suspension bridge, along the suspension bridge ahead, exposure to the endless reed, feel very comfortable. National Park in mixed with a variety of plant and animal forms, wetlands, Carolyn nano state jungle forest and grassland animal husbandry in South America and beach four, the variety of ecological environment for a variety of diverse dynamic plant growth and breeding provides a good condition. Squirrels, raccoons, weasels, mink, snakes, and a total of 100 kinds of birds, including woodpeckers, Huang Ying, swallows, owls, towhee, cuckoo, perched on the. Because of the wide variety of birds. Many of them are from the South American bird watchers usually in spring birding, in addition to all the year round in this life of birds and a large number of migrating birds, even have the opportunity to watch the blackpoll warbler.

Tianjin, referred to as "Jin", is a provincial administrative region of the People's Republic of China. It is a municipality directly under the Central Government, a national central city, a mega-city, an economic center around Bohai Sea, the first batch of open coastal cities, a national advanced manufacturing and research base, a core area of international shipping in the north, a demonstration area of financial innovation and operation, and a pioneer area of reform and opening-up. [1-3] Tianjin has risen since ancient times because of water transport. On November 21, 1404, Yongle, Ming Dynasty (December 23, 1404), the city was officially built. It is the only city in ancient China with a precise record of its construction time. After more than 600 years, Tianjin has created a unique urban style that combines Chinese and Western culture and is compatible with the past and the present. [4] Tianjin is located in North China and is bounded between 116 43 - 118 4, 38 34 - 40 15. It is bordered by the Bohai Sea in the east, Beijing and Hebei in the west, and Hebei in the north and south. Tianjin has a total area of 11916.85 square kilometers. [5] Tianjin is located on the west coast of the Pacific Ocean, northeast of North China Plain and downstream of Haihe River Basin. It is the confluence and entrance of the South Canal, Ziya River, Daqing River, Yongding River and North Canal, the five main tributaries of Haihe River. Tianjin's climate is a typical warm temperate semi-humid continental monsoon climate. [5] By the end of 2017, Tianjin had 16 municipal districts under its jurisdiction. [6] By the end of 2018, the permanent population of Tianjin was 15.596 million. The city's gross domestic product (GDP) was 1880.964 billion yuan, an increase of 3.6% over the previous year. By the end of 2017, Tianjin had 16 municipal districts under its jurisdiction, with 245 streets, townships and towns. The municipal districts are central urban area, surrounding urban area, coastal new area and suburban area. Tianjin Spatial Development Strategy puts forward the urban planning concept of "two cities, two ports, one axis, two belts, north and South ecology". Among them, "Shuangcheng" refers to the core area of Tianjin's central urban area and Binhai New Area; "Shuanggang" refers to Tianjin Port and Tianjin South Port; "North-South" refers to the north and south of the city; and "North-end" refers to the hilly and mountainous areas in the north of Jizhou District. The central city is the birthplace of Tianjin and also the economic and commercial center of politics, culture, education and economy. According to the function of service industry, the central urban area is positioned according to the functions of "financial peace", "business Hexi", "science and technology Nankai", "Jinmao Hedong", "creative Hebei", "business red bridge". [10] Binhai New Area is a sub-provincial area, a national new area and a national comprehensive reform pilot area under the jurisdiction of Tianjin. It is a gateway to the opening up of the North, a high-level modern manufacturing and R&D transformation base, a northern international shipping and logistics center, and a livable ecological new urban area. It is composed of Yuantanggu District, Hangu District, Dagang District and Tianjin Economic and Technological Development Zone. Primary industry In 2018, agricultural production was basically stable. The total agricultural output value of the year was 39.100 billion yuan, down 0.2% from the previous year. Among them, the output value of planting industry was 18.775 billion yuan, down by 34%; the output value of forestry industry was 1.273 billion yuan, up by 50.2%; the output value of animal husbandry was 9.645 billion yuan, down by 48%; the output value of fishery was 8.040 billion yuan, up by 18.7%; the output value of agriculture, forestry, animal husbandry and Fishery Services was 1.367 billion yuan, up by 75%. [7] The secondary industry Airbus A320 Tianjin General Assembly Line In 2018, the industrial added value of the whole city was 696.271 billion yuan, an increase of 2.6% over the previous year; the added value of the construction industry was 66.338 billion yuan, a decrease of 16.7%. Industrial production remained stable. The value-added of industries above scale increased by 2.4% in the whole year, 0.1 percentage points faster than that of the previous year. In terms of economic types, the added value of state-owned enterprises increased by 1.0%, private enterprises by 2.5%, and foreign and Hong Kong, Macao and Taiwan enterprises by 4.4%. In three categories, the value added of mining industry dropped by 1.4%, manufacturing industry increased by 3.2%, and the production and supply of electricity, heat, gas and water increased by 5.4%. From the perspective of major industries, the added value of agricultural and sideline food processing industry increased by 19.1%, electrical machinery and equipment manufacturing industry by 18.5%, metal products industry by 18.3%, special equipment manufacturing industry by 12.6%, pharmaceutical manufacturing industry by 8.8%, automobile manufacturing industry by 7.1%, petroleum, coal and other fuel processing industry by 2.0%. [7] The service sector; the tertiary industry Tianjin Global Financial Center-Jinta In 2018, the added value of wholesale and retail businesses in the whole city was 236.145 billion yuan, an increase of 0.8%, while that of accommodation and catering industries was 32.794 billion yuan, an increase of 4.5%. The business market has developed steadily. Sales of wholesale and retail goods increased by 3.1% throughout the year. The total retail sales of social consumer goods amounted to 553.304 billion yuan, an increase of 1.7%. Among the Above-quota commodities, the retail sales of petroleum and products increased by 10.8%, 6.8 percentage points faster than the previous year, which stimulated the retail sales of the whole city to increase by 1.7 percentage points; clothing, shoes and hats, needles and textiles to increase by 10.5%; furniture to increase by 6.1%; grain, oil and food to increase by 2.9%. There are 60 wholesale markets with a total transaction value of more than 100 million yuan, and the annual turnover is 197 billion yuan. [7]

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Generally the cities are pretty uninspiring, though they do boast the best restaurants and art and music scenes.
Transport can be challenging at times.
By road it can be slow going, particularly in the west of the island.
However, the rail network is generally reliable and efficient, and flights are inexpensive.
Java is the most complex and culturally compelling island in Indonesia.
Invest some time here and you’ve made a giant leap to understanding this utterly fascinating nation.
When to Go May Spectacular Waisak processions to mark the birth of Buddha in Borobudur.
Jun Perhaps the perfect month for travel, with clear skies and few crowds.
Oct The climax of the bull-racing season in Madura.
Best Places to Eat ? Lara Djonggrang ? Pasar Ikan, Pangandaran ? Via Via ? Ikan Bakar Cianjur ? Kiosk Best Places to Stay ? Tugu Malang ? d’Omah ? Roemahkoe ? Kemang Icon ? Kampong Tourist Java Highlights Experiencing the ethereal beauty of Borobudur temple at sunrise Gazing over the horizon-filling moonscape scenery at Gunung Bromo Hiking to the crater lake of Kawah Ijen with strong- armed sulphur miners Time travelling to Java’s golden age in the cultural capital of Yogyakarta Exploring magnificent national parks: Ujung Kulon , Meru Betiri , Alas Purwo and Baluran ( Click here ) Meeting the locals via a community tourism project in Cianjur ( Click here ) or Borobudur village Getting off the road and experiencing the palm-fringed Karimunjawa Islands Surfing, or learn to surf Java’s legendary waves at Cimaja ( Click here ), Batu Karas or G-Land History Java has a history of epic proportions and a record of human habitation that extends back 1.
7 million years to when ‘Java Man’ roamed the river banks.
Waves of migrants followed, moving down through Southeast Asia.
EARLY JAVANESE KINGDOMS Blessed with exceptional fertility from its mineral-rich volcanic soil, Java has long played host to intensive sawah (wet rice) agriculture.
Small principalities emerged, including the Hindu Mataram dynasty, in the 8th century, with worship centred on the god Shiva.
Hinduism coexisted with Buddhism for centuries, and the massive Hindu Prambanan complex was constructed within a century of Borobudur, the world’s biggest Buddhist monument.
Mataram eventually fell, perhaps at the hands of the Sumatra-based Sriwijaya kingdom.
The Javanese revival began in AD 1019 under King Airlangga, a semi- legendary figure who formed the first royal link with Bali.
Early in the 13th century the legendary Ken Angrok briefly succeeded in uniting much of Central and East Java, and Javanese culture flourished brightly.
With the emergence of the much-celebrated Majapahit kingdom, ruling from Trowulan, came the first Javanese commercial kingdom.
The kingdom traded with China and most of Southeast Asia, and grew to claim sovereignty over the entire Indonesian archipelago.
JAVA MAN Charles Darwin’s On the Origin of Species (1859) spawned a new generation of naturalists in the 19th century, and his theories sparked acrimonious debate across the world.
Ernst Haeckel’s The History of Natural Creation (1874) expounded Darwin’s theory of evolution and surmised that primitive humans had evolved from a common ape-man ancestor, the famous ‘missing link’.
One student of the new theories, Dutch physician Eugene Dubois, went to Java in 1889 after hearing of the uncovering of a skull at Wajak, near Tulung Agung in East Java.
Dubois worked at the dig, uncovering other fossils closely related to modern humans.
In 1891 at Trinil in East Java’s Ngawi district, Dubois unearthed an older skullcap, along with a femur and three teeth he later classified as originating from Pithecanthropus erectus, a low-browed, prominent-jawed early human ancestor, dating from the Middle Pleistocene epoch.
His published findings of ‘Java Man’ caused such a storm in Europe that Dubois buried his discovery for 30 years.
Since Dubois’ findings, many older examples of Homo erectus (the name subsequently given to Pithecanthropus erectus ) have been uncovered in Java.
The most important and most numerous findings have been at Sangiran, where in the 1930s Ralph von Koenigswald found fossils dating back to around one million BC.
In 1936, at Perning near Mojokerto, the skull of a child was discovered and was purported to be even older.
Most findings have been along Sungai Bengawan Solo in Central and East Java.
Geochronologists have now dated the bones of Java’s oldest Homo erectus specimens at 1.
7 million years, but also postulate that the youngest fossils may be less than 40,000 years old.
This means that Homo erectus existed in Java at the same time as Homo sapiens, who arrived on the island some 60,000 years ago, and reignites the debate about whether humankind evolved in Africa and migrated from there, or whether humans evolved on several continents concurrently.
Those interested in learning more should pick up a copy of Carl Swisher, Garniss Curtis and Roger Lewin’s extremely readable book Java Man .
ISLAMIC KINGDOMS Islamic influence grew in Java in the 15th and 16th centuries, and Muslim military incursions into East Java forced many Hindu-Buddhists eastwards to Bali.
By the 17th century, the Muslim kingdoms of Mataram and Banten were the only two powers in Java left to face the arrival of the Dutch.
DUTCH PERIOD As the Dutch set up camp in Batavia (Jakarta), Banten remained a powerful force, but civil war within the royal house led to its eventual collapse.
The Mataram dynasty also became plagued by infighting, and following three Javanese Wars of Succession, the last in 1746, the Dutch split the kingdom, creating the royal houses of Solo and Yogyakarta.
Resistance to Dutch influence continued, erupting in the anti-Dutch Java War of 1825–30, but the colonists defeated the revolts and subsequently Javanese courts became little more than ritual establishments, overseen by a Dutch residen (governor).
JAVA TODAY Java still rules the roost when it comes to political and economic life in Indonesia.
It has the bulk of the country’s industry, is easily its most developed island, and has over the years received the lion’s share of foreign investment.
The economic crisis of the late ’90s hit hard, when huge numbers of urban workers lost their jobs and rioters targeted Chinese communities.
But Java bounced back relatively quickly, and enjoyed a period of comparative stability and growing prosperity in the early 21st century.
Glittering shopping malls and a boom in tech-business are the most obvious signs of Java’s steady (if unspectacular) modernisation.
Bali apart, Java is the most outward-looking island in Indonesia, and its literate, educated population is the most closely connected to the rest of the world.
Extraneous influences matter here, and Java is the most Westernised island in the country and also the corner of the nation most influenced by radical pan-Islamic ideology.
Whilst most Javanese are moderate Muslims, there’s an increasingly vocal conservative population (as well as tiny numbers of fanatics prepared to cause death and destruction in the name of jihad ).
The Bali bombers all came from Java, and Java-based terrorists targeted foreign investments in Jakarta in 2003 and 2004, as well as several international hotels in 2009.
But when it comes to the ballot box, the Javanese as a whole

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