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7259800000~7259809999 belongs to pennsylvania


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7259803321 7259809835 7259809838 7259809832 7259809837 7259809836 7259809831 7259809833 7259809830 7259809834 7259808257 7259808256 7259808251 7259808253 7259808250 7259808254 7259808259 7259808285 7259808288 7259808282 4315725980 4318725980 4312725980 4317725980 4316725980 4311725980 4313725980 4310725980 4314725980 4319725980 7259805582 7259805587 7259804364 7259804369 7259805772 7259804665 7259804668 7259804662 7259804667 7259804666 7259804661 7259804663 7259804660 7259804664 7259804669 7259804615 7259804618 7259804612 7259804617 7259804616 7276725980 7290725980 7294725980 7299725980 7231725980 7208725980 7248725980 7207725980 7206725980 7259725980 7259802353 7259802350 7259802354 7259802359 7259802385 7259802388 7259802382 7259802387 7259802386 7259802381 7259809867 7259802690 7259802694 7259802699 7259802155 7259802158 7259802152 7259802157 7259802156 7259802151 7259805109 7259805171 7259805148 7259805142 7259805147 7259805146 7259805141 7259805143 7259805140 7259805144 7259805149 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6917725980 6916725980 6911725980 6913725980 6910725980 6914725980 6919725980 6765725980 9219725980 9235725980 9238725980 9232725980 9237725980 9236725980 9231725980 9233725980 9230725980 9234725980 9239725980 9755725980 9758725980 9752725980 9757725980 9756725980 9751725980 9753725980 9750725980 9278725980 7259809879 7259809865 7259809868 7259809862 7259802676 7259809866 7259809861 7259809863 7259809860 7259809864 7259809869 7259809815 7259809818 7259809812 7259809817 7259809816 7259809811 7259809813 7259809810 7259809814 7259803326 7259809819 7259803323 7259803375 7259803324 7259803329 7259803320 7259803304 7259803372 7259803377 7259803393 7259803345 7259803373 7259803370 7259803374 7259803379 7259803365 7259803368 7259803362 7259803367 7259802153 7259802150 7259802154 7259802159 7259802185 7259802188 7259802182 7259802187 7259802186 7259802181 7259802183 7259802180 7259802184 7259802189 7259802125 7259802128 7259802122 7259802127 7259802126 7259802121 2477725980 2493725980 2445725980 2473725980 2470725980 2474725980 2479725980 2465725980 2468725980 2462725980 2467725980 2466725980 2461725980 2463725980 2460725980 2464725980 2469725980 2415725980 2418725980 2412725980 3853725980 3850725980 3854725980 3859725980 3885725980 3888725980 3882725980 3887725980 3886725980 3881725980 3883725980 3880725980 3884725980 3889725980 3825725980 3828725980 3822725980 3827725980 3826725980 3821725980 7259802823 7259802875 7259802824 7259802829 7259802820 7259802804 7259802872 7259802877 7259802893 7259802845 7259805212 7259805217 7259805216 7259805211 7259805213 7259805210 7259805214 7259805219 7259805235 7259805238 7259805232 7259805237 7259805236 7259805231 7259805233 7259805230 7259805234 7259805239 7259805755 7259805758 6294725980 7268725980 7157725980 8555725980 8558725980 8552725980 8557725980 8556725980 8551725980 8553725980 8550725980 8554725980 8559725980 8585725980 8588725980 8582725980 8587725980 8586725980 8581725980 8583725980 5848725980 5807725980 5806725980 5859725980 5872725980 5800725980 5878725980 5809725980 5871725980 5848725980 7259801976 7259801990 7259801994 7259802634 7259803555 7259803558 7259803552 7259803557 7259803556 7259803551 7259802876 7259802890 7259802894 7259802899 7259802255 7259802258 7259802252 7259802257 7259802256 7259802251 7259802253 7259802250 7259802254 7259802259 7259802285 7259802288 7259802282 7259802287 7259802286 7259802281 5953725980 5950725980 5954725980 5959725980 5985725980 5988725980 5982725980 5987725980 5986725980 5981725980 5983725980 5980725980 5984725980 5989725980 5925725980 5928725980 5922725980 5927725980 5926725980 5921725980 8946725980 8941725980 8943725980 8940725980 8944725980 8949725980 8995725980 8998725980 8992725980 8997725980 7259808009 7259808785 7259808788 7259808782 7259808787 7259808786 7259808781 7259808783 7259808780 7259808784 7259800777 7259800793 7259800745 7259800773 7259800770 7259800774 7259800779 7259802635 7259802638 7259802632 7259802637 7259802636 7259802631 7259802633 7259802630 7259801999 7259802639 7259800455 7259800458 7259800452 3106725980 3159725980 3172725980 3100725980 3178725980 3109725980 3171725980 3148725980 3142725980 3147725980 9629725980 9620725980 9604725980 9672725980 9677725980 9693725980 9645725980 9673725980 9670725980 9674725980 9679725980 9665725980 9668725980 9662725980 9667725980 9666725980 9661725980 9663725980 9660725980 9664725980 7689725980 7625725980 7628725980 7622725980 7627725980 7626725980 7621725980 7623725980 7675725980 7624725980 7259800607 7259800606 7259800659 7259800672 7259800600 7259800678 7259800609 7259800671 7259800648 7259800642 7259800647 7259800646 7259800641 7259800643 7259800640 7259800644 7259800649 7259800695 7259800698 7259800692 7116725980 7111725980 7113725980 7110725980 7114725980 7119725980 7135725980 7138725980 7132725980 7137725980 8996725980 8991725980 8976725980 8990725980 8994725980 8999725980 7273725980 7270725980 7274725980 7279725980 8580725980 8584725980 8589725980 8525725980 8528725980 8522725980 8527725980 8526725980 8521725980 8523725980 6249725980 5495725980 8798725980 4292725980 7697725980 3096725980 6291725980 5476725980 7890725980 3584725980 7259808096 7259808091 7259808076 7259808090 7259808094 7259808099 7259808715 7259808718 7259808712 7259808717 7259808716 7259808711 7259808713 7259808710 7259808714 7259808719 7259808485 7259808488 7259808482 7259808487 8726725980 8721725980 8723725980 8720725980 8724725980 8729725980 8721725980 8008725980 8048725980 8007725980 8560725980 8564725980 8569725980 8515725980 8518725980 8512725980 8517725980 8516725980 8511725980 8314725980 7259807723 7259807775 7259807724 7259807729 7259807720 7259807704 7259807772 7259808513 7259808510 7259808514 3956725980 3951725980 3953725980 2978725980 3954725980 3959725980 3985725980 3988725980 3982725980 3987725980 3986725980 3981725980 3983725980 3980725980 3984725980 3989725980 3925725980 3928725980 3922725980 3927725980 7259804726 7259804721 7259804723 7259804775 7259804724 7259804729 7259804720 7259804704 7259804772 7259804777 2672725980 2600725980 2678725980 2609725980 2671725980 2648725980 2642725980 2647725980 2646725980 2641725980 2643725980 2640725980 2644725980 2649725980 2695725980 2698725980 2692725980 2697725980 2696725980 2691725980 2767725980 2766725980 2761725980 2763725980 2760725980 2764725980 2769725980 2931725980 2908725980 2948725980 2907725980 2906725980 2959725980 2972725980 2900725980 3950725980 2909725980 2971725980 2948725980 2942725980 7259808519 7259808535 7259808538 7259808532 7259808537 7259808536 7259808531 7259808533 7259808530 7259808534 7259808539 7259808531 7259808508 7259808548 7259808507 7259808506 7259808559 7259808572 7259808500 7259808578 7259801258 7259801252 7259801257 7259801256 7259801251 7259801253 7259801250 7259801254 7259801259 7259801285 9004725980 9072725980 9077725980 9093725980 9045725980 9073725980 9070725980 9074725980 9079725980 9065725980 7259801228 7259801222 7259801227 7259801226 7259801221 7259801223 7259801275 7259801224 7259801229 7259801220 7259801204 7259801272 7259801277 7259801293 7259801245 7259801273 7259801270 7259801274 7259801279 7259801265 7259805063 7259805060 7259805064 7259805069 7259805595 7259805598 7259805592 7259805597 7259805596 7259805591 8319725980 8335725980 8338725980 8332725980 8337725980 8336725980 8331725980 8333725980 8330725980 8334725980 8006725980 8059725980 8072725980 5526725980 8078725980 8009725980 8785725980 8788725980 8782725980 8787725980 7259805106 7259805159 7259805172 7259805100 7259805178 7259805109 7259805171 7259805148 7259805142 7259805147 8575725980 8524725980 8529725980 8520725980 8504725980 8572725980 8577725980 8593725980 8545725980 8573725980 2853725980 2850725980 2854725980 2859725980 2885725980 2888725980 2882725980 2887725980 2886725980 2881725980 7259801288 7259801282 7259801287 7259801286 7259801281 7259801283 7259801280 7259801284 7259801289 7259801225 7259805593 7259805590 7259805594 7259805599 7259805725 7259805728 7259805722 7259805727 7259805726 7259805721 7259805723 7259805720 7259805724 7259805729 7259805721 7259805008 7259805048 7259805007 7259805006 7259805059 7259805947 7259805946 7259805941 7259805943 7259805940 7259805944 7259805949 7259805995 7259805998 7259805992 7259801651 7259801653 7259801650 7259801654 7259801659 7259801685 7259801688 7259808667 7259806667 7259806666 2883725980 2880725980 2884725980 2889725980 2825725980 2828725980 2822725980 2827725980 2826725980 2821725980 5525725980 5528725980 5522725980 5527725980 8000725980 5521725980 5523725980 5575725980 5524725980 5529725980 4513725980 4510725980 4514725980 4519725980 4535725980 4538725980 4532725980 4537725980 4536725980 4531725980 4533725980 4530725980 4534725980 4539725980 4531725980 4508725980 4548725980 4507725980 4506725980 4559725980 7259806234 7259806239 7259806755 7259806758 7259806752 7259806757 7259806756 7259806751 7259806753 7259806750 7259806278 7259806759 7259806271 7259806248 7259806242 7259806247 7259806246 7259806241 7259806243 7259806240 7259801159 7259801185 7259801188 7259801182 7259801187 7259801186 7259801181 7259801183 7259801180 7259801184 3294725980 3299725980 3231725980 3208725980 7985725980 3207725980 3206725980 3259725980 3272725980 3200725980 7259808727 7259808726 7259808721 7259808723 7259808775 7259808724 7259808729 7259808720 7259808704 7259808772 4631725980 4633725980 4630725980 4634725980 4639725980 4631725980 4608725980 4648725980 4607725980 4606725980 2563725980 2560725980 2564725980 2569725980 2515725980 2518725980 2512725980 2517725980 2516725980 2511725980 7259805997 7259805996 7259805991 7259805976 7259805990 7259805994 7259805999 7259801299 7259801231 7259801208 9179725980 9165725980 9168725980 9162725980 9167725980 9166725980 9161725980 9163725980 9160725980 9164725980 7953725980 7950725980 7954725980 7959725980 3248725980 7988725980 7982725980 7987725980 7986725980 7981725980 7259805559 7259805585 7259804093 7259804045 7259804073 7259804070 7259804074 7259804079 7259804065 7259804068 7443725980 7440725980 7444725980 7449725980 7495725980 7498725980 7492725980 7497725980 7496725980 7491725980 7259805822 7259805827 7259805826 7259805821 7259805586 7259805581 7259805583 7259805580 7259805584 7259805589 7259804611 7259804613 7259804610 7259804614 7259804619 7259804635 7259804638 7259804632 7259804637 7259804636 6948725980 6942725980 6947725980 6946725980 6941725980 6943725980 6940725980 6944725980 6949725980 6995725980 5515725980 5518725980 5512725980 5517725980 5516725980 5511725980 4599725980 4725725980 4728725980 5550725980 7259806661 7259806663 7259806660 7259806664 7259800878 7259806615 7259806618 7259806612 7259806617 7259806616 7259801619 7259801635 7259801638 7259801632 7259801637 7259801636 7259801631 7259801633 7259801630 7259801634 7259801639 7259801631 7259801608 7259801648 7259801607 7259801606 7259801659 7259801672 7259801600 7259801678 7259806833 7259806830 7259806834 7259806839 7259806831 7259806808 7259806848 7259806807 7259806806 7259806859 7259806872 7259806800 7259806878 7259806809 7259806871 7259806848 7259806842 7259806847 7259806846 7259806841 1838725980 4232725980 4237725980 4236725980 5581725980 4233725980 4230725980 4234725980 4239725980 4231725980 1808725980 4248725980 4207725980 4206725980 4259725980 4272725980 4200725980 4278725980 4209725980 4271725980 6513725980 6510725980 6514725980 6519725980 6535725980 7242725980 6532725980 6537725980 6536725980 6531725980 7259801319 7259801335 7259801338 7259801332 7259801337 7259801336 7259801331 7259801333 7259801330 7259801334 3644725980 3649725980 3695725980 3698725980 3692725980 3697725980 3696725980 3691725980 3676725980 3690725980 7259802733 7259802730 7259802734 7259802739 7259802731 7259802708 7259802748 7259802707 7259802706 7259802759 5923725980 5975725980 5924725980 5929725980 5920725980 5904725980 5972725980 5977725980 5993725980 5945725980 5973725980 5970725980 5974725980 5979725980 5965725980 5968725980 5962725980 5967725980 5966725980 5961725980 5963725980 5960725980 5964725980 5969725980 5915725980 5918725980 5912725980 5917725980 5916725980 5911725980 7259807219 7259807235 7259807238 7259807232 7259807237 7259807236 7259807231 7259807233 7259807230 7259807234 9249725980 9295725980 9298725980 9292725980 9297725980 9296725980 9291725980 9276725980 9290725980 9294725980 7259806611 7259806613 7259806610 7259806614 7259806619 7259806635 7259806638 7259806632 7259806637 7259806636 7259800806 7259800859 7259800872 7259800800 7259806669 7259800809 7259800871 7259800848 7259800842 7259800847 5232725980 3437725980 3436725980 3431725980 3433725980 3430725980 3434725980 3439725980 5755725980 5758725980 1742725980 3647725980 3646725980 3641725980 3643725980 3640725980 4366725980 4361725980 4363725980 4360725980 7259805483 7259805075 7259805484 7259805489 7259804171 7259805004 7259805072 7259805077 7259805093 7259805045 7259805073 7259805070 7259805074 7259805079 7259805065 7259805068 7259805062 7259805067 7259805066 7259805061 5822725980 5827725980 5826725980 5821725980 5586725980 4231725980 5583725980 5580725980 5584725980 5589725980 4611725980 4613725980 4610725980 4614725980 4619725980 4635725980 4638725980 4632725980 4637725980 4636725980 7259804483 7259804480 7259804484 7259804489 7259804425 7259804428 7259804422 7259804427 7259804426 7259804421 4826725980 4821725980 4823725980 4875725980 4824725980 4829725980 4820725980 4804725980 4872725980 4877725980 4893725980 4845725980 4873725980 4870725980 4874725980 4879725980 4865725980 4868725980 4862725980 4867725980 4866725980 2661725980 9063725980 4860725980 7464725980 2369725980 4815725980 8518725980 4812725980 4817725980 6631725980 6633725980 6630725980 6634725980 6639725980 6631725980 6608725980 6648725980 6607725980 6606725980 6659725980 6672725980 6600725980 6678725980 6609725980 6671725980 6648725980 6642725980 6647725980 6646725980 7259808777 7259808793 7259808745 7259808773 7259808770 7259808774 7259808779 7259805135 7259805138 7259805132
pennsylvania local customs, tourist attractions

Pennsylvania major industrial sectors of metallurgy, textile, chemical industry, machinery manufacturing, metal processing, shipbuilding, electronics, electrical, the iron and steel industry is particularly prominent, steel production accounts for about 1/4. Pittsburgh is the largest iron and steel industrial center, Philadelphia is the fourth largest city in the United States and Quanzhou's largest industrial center. Coal is abundant, production after the West Virginia, ranking the second in the country, the Northeast Pennsylvania is the main origin of the United States anthracite. Agricultural land area accounts for 30% of the area of the state. Dairy income accounted for 50% of agricultural income, milk is the main agricultural products, concentrated in the northeastern state of. Beef cattle industry is distributed in the southwest. Planting industry are mainly maize, winter wheat, tobacco, potato, mushroom production in China, Kui River downstream Texas Hanna Lancaster County is a famous agricultural area etc.. Economic crops are tobacco and fruit etc..

Located in the eastern part of the United States, one of the 13 states in the state of. Pennsylvania northwest of Lake Erie, North and northeast of New York, east of New Jersey, Southeast of Delaware, south of Maryland, southwest of West Virginia, West and Ohio border.



Trade situation: in 2011 the total trade exports 41 billion 74 million U.S. dollars, the United States ranked tenth, accounting for 2.77% of the total U.S. exports, an increase of 17.6%. Major export markets for Canada, China, Mexico, Japan, germany. The main export products include mineral products, medicine, medical supplies, chemical products, machinery and equipment, transportation equipment, computer and electronic products, mechanical and electrical equipment and parts, alloy metal products, etc..
In 2011, China for Pennsylvania's second largest export market, exports of approximately for $35.23 million, an increase of 31.5% and 8.57% when the state of total exports accounted for. 2011 Penn's total exports to China in the 50 states of the United States listed the seven, the products are mainly exported to have mechanical excluding electrical products, chemical products, metals and minerals, computer and electronic products, primary metal processed products such as.

The independence hall was built from 1732 to 1756, which is a famous American historic building, and it is a symbol of American independence. Room but three, the table but a few, but more than a dozen chairs, but it was the seat of the U.S. Congress and the high court, is to sign the declaration of independence and the approval of the United States constitution.
Legislative, judicial and administrative separation of the three powers from now on, just and fair in this process based on the establishment of. Pennsylvania State Capitol Independent Building was the colonial period. First and second in the Americas conference held in September 1774 and 1775 may then, on July 2, 1776, 13 British colonies composed of representatives of the Continental Congress was held here, on July 4,
through the by Jackson in the drafting of the declaration of independence, announced that the North American colonies from the British, the establishment of "free and independent states of America". In the United States war of independence,
the Congress has commanded operations in the independence hall, and in this creation 0, entered into a permanent union of the United States of america. In May 25, 1787, representatives of this 13 state constitutional convention, presided over by Washington, and signed the constitution of the United states.
Now, the Independence Hall furnishings still intact, 13 conference table was covered with a green velvet cloth, placed paper, stationery and books.

西安,古称“长安”、“镐京”,是陕西省省会,地处关中平原中部,北濒渭河,南依秦岭,八水润长安。
全市下辖10区3县,总面积10108平方公里。
2014年末常住人口862.75万,其中城镇人口626.44万。
[1-3] 长安自古帝王都,其先后有西周、秦、西汉、新莽、西晋、前赵、前秦、后秦、西魏、北周、隋、唐13个王朝在西安地区建都(积年为1077年)。
是中华文明和中华民族重要发祥地之一,丝绸之路的起点。
[5-6] 丰镐都城、秦咸阳宫、兵马俑,汉未央宫、长乐宫,隋大兴城,唐大明宫、兴庆宫等勾勒出“长安情结”。
西安是中国最佳旅游目的地、全国文明城市之一 ,国家重要的科教中心,有两项六处遗产被列入《世界遗产名录》,分别是:秦始皇陵及兵马俑、大雁塔、小雁塔、唐长安城大明宫遗址、汉长安城未央宫遗址、兴教寺塔。
拥有西安交通大学、西北工业大学、西安电子科技大学等7所985或211工程类大学。
截至2012年,西安市常住人口855.29万人,其中,男性人口439.21万人,占51.4%;女性人口416.08万人,占48.6%,性别比为105.56(以女性为100,男性对女性的比例)。
全年出生人口8.64万人,出生率为10.13‰;死亡人口4.75万人,死亡率为5.57‰。
全年净增人口3.95万人,自然增长率为4.56‰。
城镇人口611.62万人,占71.51%;乡村人口243.67万人,占28.49%。
年末全市户籍总人口795.98万人,比上年增长0.5%。
西安是丝绸之路经济带的经济、文化、商贸中心,新亚欧大陆桥及黄河流域最大城市。
丝绸之路 2014年,西安市生产总值(GDP)5474.77亿元,按可比价格计算,比上年增长9.9%,增幅高于全国2.5个百分点,高于全省0.2个百分点。
分产业看,第一产业增加值214.55亿元,增长5.1%;第二产业增加值2205.37亿元,增长11.3%;第三产业增加值3054.85亿元,增长9.0%。
科研 西安科技力量雄厚、人才众多,科技实力仅次于北京、上海,居全国 大唐芙蓉园夜景 大唐芙蓉园夜景 第三位,至2012末年,拥有各类科研及开发机构3000多个,各类独立科研机构460余家,其中国家级重点实验室、工程技术研究中心和行业测试中心231个,各类专业技术人员44万人,两院院士55人。
2012年实施市级科技计划项目337项,其中,高新技术专项26项,科技创新和成果转化项目216项。
重点扶持高新技术企业118家,支持建设农业科技示范园19家,实施区县工业科技引导项目10个。
全年技术市场交易额303.75亿元。
申请专利量15029件,专利授权量3475件。
旅游景点 长安八景 西安是首批中国优秀旅游城市。
西安的文化遗存具有资源密度大、保存好、级别高的特点,在中国旅游资源普查的155个基本类型中,西安旅游资源占据89个。
西安周围帝王陵墓有72座,其中有“千古一帝”秦始皇的陵墓,周、秦、汉、唐四大都城遗址,西汉帝王11陵和唐代帝王18陵,大小雁塔、钟鼓楼、古城墙等古建筑700多处。
西安自然生态优美。
位于西安南面的秦岭被誉为中国的“中央公园”,是中国地理和气候的南北分水岭。
2009年秦岭终南山成功通过联合国教科文组织评审,成为世界地质公园。
2011年举世瞩目的世界园艺博览会也将在西安举办。
西安境内现有两项六处遗产被列入《世界遗产名录》,分别是:秦始皇陵兵马俑、大雁塔、小雁塔、唐长安城大明宫遗址、汉长安城未央宫遗址、兴教寺塔。
秦始皇兵马俑博物馆:世界文化遗产、全国重点文物保护单位、国家AAAAA级旅游景区、国家一级博物馆 秦始皇兵马俑博物馆被誉为“世界第八大奇迹”,是当代最重要的考古发现之一。
大雁塔:世界文化遗产、全国重点文物保护单位、国家AAAAA级旅游景区 大雁塔被视为古都西安的象征。
大雁塔是8世纪为保存玄奘法师由天竺经丝绸之路带回长安的经卷佛像而建。
莲湖公园 莲湖公园位于西安市莲湖路南,坐落在唐代宫城承天门遗址上。
明代秦王朱樉(朱元璋次子)取其高低不平地势,引注通济渠水,在此建王府花园。
1916年辟为莲湖公园。
公路 西安地处中国陆地版图中心和中国中西部两大经济区域的结合部,是西北通往中原、华北和华东各地市的必经之路。
在全国区域经济布局上,西安作为新亚欧大陆桥中国段——陇海兰新铁路沿线经济带上最大的西部中心城市,是国家实施西部大开发战略的桥头堡,具有承东启西、连接南北的重要战略地位,是全国干线公路网中最大的节点城市之一。
公路建设形成了一个以西安为中心,有9条国家高速在此交汇,形成了贯通陕西省、辐射周边省市的高等级“米”字型辐射状干线公路系统,有公路2800多公里,有6条国道干线通过。
绕城高速、机场新线建成,二环路、三环路全面贯通。
市区与所辖区县全部开通高速公路。
铁路 西安是陕西省“米”字形铁路交通的重要枢纽。
2012年12月底, 西安已开通至北京、广州、长沙、深圳、武汉、郑州、石家庄的直达高铁线路。
铁道线路有郑西高速铁路、西宝高速铁路、大西客运专线等。
火车站有西安站、西安北站等。
航空 西安咸阳国际机场是中国重要航空港,目前共有20家航空公司在机场经营150余条航线,每天有400余架次的航班在机场起降。
2009年旅客吞吐量达到1529万,为全国十大机场增速最快 的机场。
从2009年3月开始, 西安咸阳国际机场二期扩建工程全面开工,项目总投资103.91亿元,将在现有跑道南侧建设长3800米,宽60米的第二条跑道和平行滑行道,使飞行区达到4F标准,能够起降A380等超大型洲际飞机。
新建25.3万平方米的3号航站楼,规模为原有航站楼的4倍,建成后,新建的3号航站楼将和既有的1号、2号候机楼连为一个整体,并有摆渡车往返其间,方便中转旅客转机,各航站楼之间实现一体化交通。
地铁 西安地铁,截至2013年底已开通1号线(蓝)、2号线(红),在建3号线(浅紫)、4号线(绿),是西北地区首座拥有地铁运营线路的城市,同时也成为中国大陆第十个拥有地铁运营线路的城市。
截至2013年西安地铁运营两条线,运营里程45.9公里,西安地铁运营线设计覆盖西安市六个市辖区(新城区、碑林区、莲湖区、灞桥区、未央区、雁塔区、长安区),连通古城、城东、城西、城南、城北五大城区,串起了西安市东西中轴线上的三桥、土门、五路口、康复路、纺织城,南北中轴线上的龙首原、钟楼、小寨等商圈,使得市区紧密联系在1小时经济圈内。
西安地铁2号线于2011年9月16日下午14时正式通车运行。
西安地铁1号线于2013年9月15日早上10时正式通车运营。

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to tax collector to concubine.
Land was generally considered to belong to the ruler, who permitted subjects to use it in exchange for taxes and tribute.
Slaves were an integral part of the scene well into the 19th century.
Other states could pay tribute too and the largest kingdoms or sultanates, such as the Java-based Hindu-Buddhist Majapahit (1294–1478) and Muslim Mataram (1581–1755), built trading empires based on tribute from other peoples whom they kept in line through the threat of a military bashing.
Majapahit lived on in the memory of later Indonesian states for the fine manners, ceremony and arts of its court, and because some of its princes and princesses had married into the ruling families of Muslim sultanates.
Many later rulers would assert their credentials by reference to family connections with the Majapahit kingdom.
Shared religion was no bar to belligerence.
Sultan Agung of Mataram had no qualms about conquering neighbouring Muslim states in the 1620s when he wanted to tighten control over the export routes for Mataram’s rice, sugar and teak.
Nor did past loyalty or even blood ties guarantee personal favour.
In the first year of his reign, Agung’s successor Amangkurat I massacred at least 6000 subjects, including his father’s advisers and his own half-brothers and their families, to remove any possible challenges to his authority.
European Influence The coming of Europeans in the 16th and 17th centuries introduced new ways for Indonesian states and contenders to get one over on their rivals.
They could use the Europeans as trading partners or mercenaries or allies, and if the Europeans became too powerful or demanding, they expected they could get rid of them.
In Maluku the Muslim sultanate of Ternate, a small but wealthy clove-growing island, drove out its former trading partners, the Portuguese, in 1575.
It later awarded the Dutch a monopoly on the sale of its spices and used the revenue to build up its war fleet and extract tribute from other statelets.
Ternate eventually controlled 72 tax-paying tributaries around Maluku and Sulawesi.
Such agreements, alliances and conquests, eventually gave the Dutch a hold over much Indonesian trade and territory.
Their involvements in the endless internal feuds of the powerful Javanese Mataram kingdom won them such a stranglehold over the region that in 1749 the dying king Pakubuwono II willed them control over his kingdom.
In 1755 the Dutch resolved yet another Mataram succession dispute by splitting it into two kingdoms, with capitals at Surakarta (Solo) and Yogyakarta.
Both royal families later split again, so that by the early 19th century there were four rival royal houses in this tiny part of central Java.
So long as local rulers and aristocrats cooperated, the Dutch were content to leave them in place, and these traditional rulers eventually became the top rank of the ‘Native’ branch of the colonial civil service, continuing to run their kingdoms under the supervision of a sprinkling of Dutch administrators.
Dutch Domination The name Indonesia was coined in the 1850s by a When the Dutch first arrived at Scot, James Logan (editor of the Singapore- Banten in 1595 and set up the United published Journal of the Indian Archipelago and Eastern Asia ) as a shorter equivalent for the term East India Company (Vereenigde Indian Archipelago.
Oost-Indische Compagnie; VOC) to conduct all their business in the East Indies in 1602, they did not plan to end up running the whole of what came to be Indonesia.
They just wanted to drive other European powers out of the lucrative spice trade in Indonesia.
Their strategy was to sign exclusive trade agreements with local rulers where possible, and to impose their will by military force where necessary.
Their powerful fleets and effective soldiers made them a potent ally for local strongmen, and in return the Dutch could extract valuable trading rights.
In the 1650s and 1660s Banten’s Sultan Ageng Moving In Tirtajasa decreed that all men aged 16 or over must In the beginning the Dutch tend 500 pepper plants.
concentrated primarily on the spice trade.
In 1605 they drove the Portuguese out of Ambon.
They then set up their own chain of settlements in Muslim ports along the route to the Spice Islands, with their headquarters at Jayakarta, a small vassal port of Banten in northwest Java.
When Banten, with English help, tried to expel them in 1619, the Dutch beat off the attack, rebuilt the town and renamed it Batavia.
Today it’s called Jakarta.
By varied means the Dutch took control of Banda in 1621, Melaka in 1641, Tidore in 1657, Makassar in 1669, and then several Javanese ports.
In Banda they exterminated or expelled almost the whole population in the 1620s and replaced them with slave-worked nutmeg plantations.
The Javanese Mataram kingdom tried unsuccessfully to drive the Dutch out of Batavia in 1628 and again in 1629.
In the 1640s, Mataram’s King Amangkurat I, facing a host of internal challenges, decided it was wiser to make peace with the VOC.
He went further and gave it the sole licence to carry Mataram goods.
While Chinese, Arabs and Indians continued to trade in Indonesia in the 17th and 18th centuries, the VOC ended up with all the best business.
Asian traders carried rice, fruit and coconuts from one part of the archipelago to another; Dutch ships carried spices, timber, textiles and metals to other Asian ports and Europe.
The VOC’s trading successes brought it an ever larger and costlier Nathaniel’s Nutmeg by Giles Milton offers a web of commitments around the fascinating account of the battle to control trade from archipelago.
By 1800 it controlled the Spice Islands.
Now known as the Banda Islands, most of Java and parts of Maluku, they still have many colonial-era sites and are well Sulawesi, Sumatra and Timor.
It was worth visiting.
overstretched, corrupt – and bankrupt.
The Dutch crown took over the company’s possessions but then lost them (first to France, then to Britain) during the Napoleonic Wars.
Control was restored to the Dutch in 1816 following the Anglo-Dutch Treaty of 1814.
THE CULTIVATION SYSTEM The seemingly intractable problems the Dutch had with their colony were made much worse by the devastating Diponegoro War in Java (1825–30).
This conflict started when Prince Diponegro got angry after the Dutch built a new road across land that contained his parents memorial.
Hostilities began and the prince received widespread support by others in Java who had grievances with the Dutch.
To quell the conflict, the Dutch eventually needed to bring in troops from Sulawesi, Holland and even Dutch African colonies at huge expense.
After the war, Holland desperately needed to make the East Indies profitable.
Its answer was the new Cultivation (or Culture) System.
Up to two million Javanese peasants were obliged to grow the export crops of coffee, tea, tobacco, indigo or sugar, and pay a proportion of their crop in tax, and sell the rest to the government at fixed prices.
This saved Holland from bankruptcy, and while some villagers prospered, the cultivation system also resulted in famines, loss of rice-growing lands, poverty and corruption.
Commerce Rules The Dutch introduced coffee to Indonesia in 1696.
As the 19th century progressed, United East India Company (VOC) officials got

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